Sunday, July 22, 2007

Power Plants of Turkish Refineries

Dear Colleagues,

In this article I would like to present my past site observations of my marketing visits to various sites of Turkish refineries for their new investments and/or rehabilitation works for existing units in their power houses. We shall start with Batman refinery, the least known by public.

In an International Marketing team, we visited Tupraş Batman Refinery on 8-9-10 April 1999. We had meetings with the Refinery Manager, his managers and their staff in operations, investments, maintenance, technical services, and purchasing.

Tüpraş Batman Refinery was in the first priority of immediate Privatization scheme. Vendor (Tüpraş) and purchaser (TPIC) already signed the preliminary documents for the transfer. Tüpraş asks 40m US Dollars, Privatization puts a figure around 20m US Dollars, whereby TPAO (TPIC) expects to purchase free-of-charge since it was free-of-charge in the past ownership transfer from TPAO to Tüpraş.

Post-refinery oil product prices are set by the public refinery Tupras and approved by the Government, and they do not always allow Tupras to recover its costs. As a consequence, investments by Tupras to improve the quality of oil products have been delayed. The sulphur content of oil products in Turkey are very high (7% in Batman Refinery) compared with other countries. The Government implemented a price formula to link oil product prices to international prices.

Tüpraş Privatization method is Trade sale on refinery basis. Implementation will be as per High Planning Council decision no. 91/2 dated 08 January 1991, the company shares were offered publicly. In this IPO 1.64 % shares were sold.

The privatization studies of Izmir/Aliaga, Izmit and Kirikkale refineries owned and operated by Tupras, were at that time in progress in coordination with the consultants. The intended strategy was to privatize the state shares of separate refining companies in block.

Batman Refinery Ownership transfer would be made to TPIC (TURKISH PETROLEUM INTERNATIONAL COMPANY LTD.) which was formed by employees/ retirees of TPAO and works in international projects, privatizations, and private procedures.

Pursuant to Resolution No. 88/13180 dated August 21, 1988, TPIC was established to carry out more efficient international operations for and on behalf of TPAO, and was officially registered in Channel Island Jersey (U.K.) on December 7, 1988.

The object of the company is oil exploration activities in abroad. The company was wholly owned by TPAO, and has a capital of US$ 3 million all of which is paid up.

Batman Refinery was designed and installed to refine low gravity (11-12) crude oil that is available in the nearby region, in Batman and Adıyaman oil fields. Refinery had approximately 1.1 million tons of crude refining capacity per year.

Profit break-even point is at 700,000 tons per year. Last year they had more than 800,000 tons of crude refining and the enterprise had profit. Their output was 20% white products (gasoline, diesel, naphtha) and remaining 80% black products (fuel oil, asphalt etc)

BATMAN produces 40,000 tons of naphtha per year as by-product of the refining process, keep some as emergency at their plant and inject the rest (25,000 tons) into Kerkuk- Ceyhan Crude pipeline to be transported to Tupraş Aliağa Refinery for refining once more. Therefore the naphtha produced was treated as Crude oil, in-and-out procedure. This is loss since it is assumed to be crude oil (17 USD per barrel as of 1999 or 70 USD per ton, whereby naphtha spot price was around 170 USD per ton)

We visited the powerhouse. All 7 boilers were in operation but need further maintenance and upgrading.

Boilers number 1-2-3 are B&W boilers built in 1955 at 420 psig 20,000 pph each,
Number 4 boiler is built by Deutsche Babcock
Number 5 is B&W FM.10-61,
Number 6 is B&W- FM.117-88
Number 7 is Stein, retubing by a local company,
Number 8 had blasted in operation and site is cleared. Not in operation.

First 3- FF-15 type B&W boilers were sold by B&W in 1954 to Ralph Parsons Co. in behalf of MTA Batman Public Company. Plant needs 30 tons of steam in summer time and 50 tph in winter, whereby their output capacity is 210 tph. Therefore they are quite comfortable in steam production, no rush no emergency they have.

Moreover they have one ABB (ASEA Stal) GT-35 gas turbine in simple cycle to generate 9-10 MW electricity, sitting idle since early 1980. It was in operation between 1970-1980 to serve nearby regions. Refinery itself has only 2.5-MW electricity consumption.

Since government introduces generous investment incentives for the region, local and international power developers may get interested in building new BOT/BOO type power plants in the empty refinery area.

During our meetings with our presentations and further to point-out our contribution; Refinery Management asked the following assistance,

1. In-plant Training at site for operators
2. Condition assessment if applicable, a sample document
3. Modernization facilities if applicable
4. Specification of damaged equipment, instruments to replace
5. FD fan controls to be replaced if applicable
6. De-sulphurisation of the available fuel oil by additives
7. Recommendations to operate existing idle GT-35 gas turbine,
how to sell to the main grid (5 US cents per kwh),
then further CCPP scheme application
8. Heat recovery for refinery furnaces (info will be supplied by Batman)
9. Better pricing in all proposals

Refinery sincerely and repeatedly asked if we could give In-plant operator training. We have similar training in the past for new boiler sales upon completion. Therefore we can repeat for the existing clients. They advised that Refinery Manager has purchasing authority upto 40 billion TL (approximately 100,000 USD). Tüpraş General Manager has 100-billion TL limit. Above that figure, the board was authorized to purchase. At that time since it would be privatized and sold to TPIC after national elections, Tüpraş board was resisting to any new investments. Therefore any purchase above 40-b TL threshold was rejected.

Our retubing proposal was not appropriate since it exceeds the limit; therefore it should be prepared in smaller packages and be presented in reasonable budget figures. We were told that the retubing request would be retendered in 2-3 packages and they expected us to quote reasonable figures.

Therefore upon receipt of retendering the previous retubing inquiry, we should quote in partials, one package for furnace and the other for SH, and come-up with a price slightly less than 2x40 billion TL , approximately equivalent of total 220,000 USD. Initial price was 317,300 USD.

As of year 1999, Batman Refinery was a peaceful, reasonable and secure place for work, although the city itself is in high anxiety of 18th April 1999 national elections at that time.

Petkim- Aliağa, site observations on 18th February 2000

Petrochemical Plant had 4 each Mitsubishi steam boilers each generating 350 tph at 150 bar 540C steam, oil fired to feed Steam Turbine Generators. Plant had 1x20MW back-pressure and 2x60 MW ABB-BBC steam turbines. In normal operation, 3 boilers were fired whereby the 4th was in stand-by. In year 1999 they had retubing in 2 of these boilers. Contractor was a local company who employed another local subcontractor to handle the necessary local works at site. Contract price then (1999) was 45b TL (approximately 200,000 USD) . In year 2000 sometime in summer, they were planning to retube the remaining two. We were advised to deliver our PQ files in order to be invited.

Tüpraş- Aliağa, on the same day

We had site visit and technical conversation on last cancelled boiler tender for 150 tons per hour MCR at 39 bar 440 degrees Celsius. Project will be retendered with scope extension to include necessary civil works and common concrete stack at 95m high. Their budget was around 5m USD. Moreover they had 3x100 tph plus 1x150 tph Mitsubishi steam boilers and 4x 75tph Russian built and 1x100 tph CO firing steam boilers in operation.

Steam Boiler details of other Turkish Refineries which we visited on various other time frames,

Atas Mersin Refinery had 3 each “115-VU-55” type, constructed by CE in 1961, field erected steam boilers each to generate 45 tons of superheated steam per hour at maximum continuous rate at 52 bar 425 degrees Celsius. Refinery is closed at this time due to unfavorable conditions of economics.

TUPRAS Kirikkale Refinery had 4 each constructed by Romanians in 1985, field erected steam boilers each to generate 120 tons of superheated steam per hour at maximum continuous rate at 100 bar 460 degrees Celsius. Boilers completed their economic life for further operation. They need rehabilitation desperately.

I hope that above information will help interested parties to enable them to make their further investment and future proposal works.

Non of these power plants are designed by local engineers however it is my sincere feeling and wish that soon in time, we shall be doing all necessary engineering/ fabrication/ site installation/ construction and smooth operation by our local engineering capability.

Your comments are always welcome

Monday, July 09, 2007

Deep Sea discharge regulations on our Mediterranean coast

Dear Colleagues

Last week I received a question/ a request from an experienced power plant engineer from a country on the Mediterranean coast, Greece. My colleague says that he was interested to find some data about the seashore (Mediterranean) located power plants - based on public references. Specifically, he would like to know what would be the temperature rise in the seawater cooled condensers? Is there any environment protection law in Turkey that limits this value (or the maximum discharge temperature)? What he would like to know, as "neighbors" on the Mediterranean Seashore, if there is any environment protection law in Turkey limiting the temperature of the power plant discharge cooling seawater (or the temperature increase). Such laws are in effect in the USA, Japan, and since Turkey has recently built seashore power plants and this is the reason he would like to try to look for an answer there.

I asked my trusted friends to help me to answer the question. One of my experienced friends who worked in Jubail Desalination plant in Saudi Arabia, shared his experience. Saudis have a big desalination plant in Jubail. They pump huge amount of desalinated purified waster to Riyadh city almost 400 km west of Jubail. Desalination plants have also thermal power plants nearby. The Gulf sea water in Jubail, which would be approximately at 34-36 degrees Celsius, is used in water cooling systems of the thermal power plant. The plant operators first pump the outgoing discharge water into an artificial pond/ lagoon to dilute the hot water with ambient sea water to reduce the water temperature. That pond has approximately 2 km diameter in construction. He told that he caught lots of fish each with approximately 2 kg in weight within 2 hours of boat sailing, since hot water was a quite comfortable place for tropical fauna.

Another friend of mine advised me to review the “Water Pollution Control” Direction of Turkish Ministry of Environment, dated 31st December 2004 numbered 25687. On Table 22-23, it is clearly stated that sea water discharge is limited to 35 degrees Celsius. However whatever would be the dilution rate, Sea water can not exceed 35 degrees Celsius, and moreover During June- September period, Deep water sea discharge can not be increased more than 1 C degrees, in all other months it can not be increased more than 2 degrees however if seawater is less than 28 degrees Celsius then seawater deep sea discharge can be increased not more than 3 degrees Celsius

Still, my foreign colleague is not satisfied, and he stated that he doubt that the Turkish Power Plants on the Mediterranean shore are cooled with only 1 to 3 degree Celsius seawater temperature increase. Under such a strict condition they need huge seawater flows!!!

He thinks that the thermal power plants on Turkish Mediterranean coast should have special permits since they cannot meet the conditions of the Direction. Moreover the hot water at the plant discharge could allow some nice tropical fish to live in such as big size dangerous sharks, etc.

Still, he says that he doubts that the Turkish Power Plants on the Mediterranean shore are cooled with only 1 to 3 degree Celsius seawater temperature increase. Under such a strict condition they need huge seawater flows!!!

We should not get provoked immediately. We need to review situation in cold blood, in cool mood.

We really wonder if the imported coal firing SUGOZU 2x 660 MWe Thermal Power plant in Yumurtalik meets that environmental condition.

It is my sincere feeling that the thermal power plants in Aegean, Marmara, Black Sea coasts can meet and satisfy that discharge temperature limitations since the overall seawater temperature is quite low there.

I personally feel that imported coal firing thermal power plants are not suitable for our country, since they have “energy supply risk” as well as they bring ash/ sulphur/ CO2 emissions/ dirt and huge pollution to our sea ports. They also block the development of our local indigenous lignite.

We really wonder if our authorities make regular / periodical sea water discharge controls on SUGOZU.

Isn’t that thermal power plant owned by Oyak group of Turkey with Siemens and Steag of Germany?

Another friend of mine who worked in the local site management of the subject thermal power plant disclosed the following information. That is almost 7 years after groundbreaking at site. Plant is in smooth operation, getting imported coal from Columbia and generating electricity for the country and earning money for the investors. However when it was the time they applied for “Environmental Impact Report”, the design parameter was based on limitation of sea water temperature not more than 35 degrees Celsius. However that is not possible with the existing average sea water around the thermal power plant. So decision makers advised that the existing direction would be modified in time to be in parallel with the design parameters. Therefore the existing power plant water Deep sea discharge should exceed the limitations.

Life on seashore in on a delicate knife edge natural balance. If you increase the seawater by 2 degrees at almost a random time frame, the creatures, flora and fauna cannot fit their lives into new conditions. They do not live with Ministerial directions. They have their own natural directions. They do not live in hot springs. So only the fittest creatures will continue to survive, they are single cell planktons. All other fish species are endangered. New bigger and dangerous creatures are invited, such as sharks and others. The return to the early stage would take centuries.

There is no deep sea water injection that is purely direct water injection to the ambient sea water. We normally retrieve cool water from deep sea and discharge the outgoing plant cooling water into sea surface.

My friend who worked in 11 x 400 MW Shoaiba (Saudi Arabia) Thermal power plant, says that water is taken from -25m of Red Sea at about 22 to 25 degrees Celsius, and with 7degree Celsius maximum temperature increase it is discharged at 29 32 degree Celsius which is almost the same temperature at sea surface. Each unit consumes approximately 57,500 m3/hour, total 632,500 m3/hour sea water is pumped in cooling process. That is said to be minimum effect to the sea life. That much sea water in chlorine then all planktons inside are eliminated, and treated with “residual chlorine” and delivered back to the sea water. Any statement saying “No impact on deep sea water life” is absolutely meaningless.

For Sugozu 2x 660 MWe thermal power plant, our nearby seawater temperature is 28 degrees Celsius average. The water cooling circulation per units is estimated to be 55,000-60,000 m3/hour, so the temperature increase should be around 10- 11 degrees Celsius in single pass cooling. That yields a discharge water temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

There is also one more issue this time in cooling, the cool water sea discharges in LNG gasification stations in Marmara Ereglisi at Sea of Marmara and in Aliaga Sea Terminal at Aegean Sea. This is not deep sea discharge but immediate discharge at the coast line from “Open Rack vaporizers” at 3-4 degrees Celsius. This discharge at 3-4 degree Celsius starts decomposition of the fauna and flora and creates huge decomposition smell at the coast.

We need to check where we make the discharge, at what temperature changes, at what distance and at what dept of the sea. We talk about Mediterranean Sea, also Sea of Marmara and Aegean Seas, not a river basin. Any temperature difference as low/ or high as 1-2 degrees Celsius will make some creatures in more advantageous and some creatures at less advantageous situation.

We certainly are in a unique position to change natural laws and are doing so every day we enter the science lab or the engineering workshop. That is our inalienable right and has been since the first fire was lit and the first wheel rolled down the hill. We do this in the name of progress.

We create genetically modified crops which are resistant to disease and pests. We cut down forests of the trees which help to purify our atmosphere. We are at present cloning humans to make available a ready supply of bodily transplant material which will enable us to attain an age far beyond our prescribed three score years and ten.

When we look back into history and you will see Nature had a way of redressing the balance of population explosion. Plagues, wars, floods, fires were all in their turn applied as brakes to restrict the ever-growing masses crowding this tiny orb we call Earth. Scientists discovered vaccines to combat disease, peacemakers ended wars, engineers designed flood gates, fire-fighters fought the blazes of the forest.

Progress will be the downfall of mankind unless we raise the barriers and declare:
"No entry, you have reached the limits of civilisation"

We are getting too clever for our boots and our toes are beginning to pinch.

We need a sensible cobbler to stretch the leather before we are crippled with the bunions of progress.

We are not in position/ nor have any right to change the natural laws of the world, otherwise we pay back dearly.

Your comments are always welcome
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