Boiler Technology for Local Coal in Turkey
to popular belief, in Turkey we have reliable low-calorific-value
domestic coal firing thermal power plants that have proven themselves
over the years in their long-term operations. We have them, so let's
#5-6, Seyitömer #4, Kangal #3, Afşin-B.
for the last 20-30 years, all of these plants are very reliable in
firing domestic low-quality coal. Up until now they have solved any
problems that have arisen in their burning of low-calorific-value
domestic coal. They may have some other shortcomings, and these
should also be solved in time.
they have difficulty in soot blowing, they should acquire more soot
their dust filters don’t meet emission standards, they should build
bigger dust filters.
they don’t have flue gas desulphurization (FGD) technologies, they
should get them.
their NOx emissions do not meet required national standards, they
should add Low-NOx burners, and if this is still not enough, then
they should install a selective catalytic reactor (SCR).
who have invested in new domestic coal firing thermal power plants
have not disclosed the results of their investments so far. There are
neither success stories nor announcements of high efficiency; there
is no information on the progress of these projects. Leaked news is
not so encouraging however. Once a big thermal power plant project
is completed, the project results are shared by everyone. This is an
acceptable exercise in public relations, an acceptable way to
advertise to the market.
read the reports, academic papers, listen to conference
presentations, and we congratulate our peers and share their
experiences. Over the past 10 years, new investments have primarily
focused on on circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology, but nothing
has been disclosed about these investments to the public.
the other hand, there are lots of presentations, commercial and
academic papers, articles, and news reports on CFB technology itself,
and all of this is available for public access.
there is a piercing silence on this technology’s application in
Turkey when it comes to the investments in indigenous coal firing
power plants. Until now, nobody has explained anything. Billions of
US dollars have been invested in these plants. Yet there is no
technical evaluation, no information, nothing. After evaluating the
secrecy with which this situation is being handled, my humble
comments are as follows.
is clear that our low-calorific-value local coal with 50-55% moisture
(water content) is almost impossible to fire without pre-heating and
dehumidification. It can’t be fired properly without installing
dewatering systems. Excessive amounts of supplementary oil-fueled
firing is necessary to fire the coal if delivered to boiler
combustion chambers as is.
this sense, companies from the Far East offered their off-the-shelf
CFB designs to our local investors as a panacea, backed up by cheap
prices and cheap financing by their Exim banks funds.
impressed our local investors with their ultra cheap prices. However,
their CFB technology is not capable of firing our
high-moisture, low-heating-value local coal. So in the end, top
management decision-makers at local investor companies are aware of
this situation, and because they made these incorrect decisions, they
don’t want to make a sound until they retire.
writer believes that the appropriate technology to fire our domestic
coal can be found in the 4x350 MWE producing Afşin-B plant, which
employs “indirect pre-heating pulverized coal firing” coal
combustion technology. The German Company that designed this
technology went bankrupt due to various financial reasons at home.
The company withdrew from the market and is not active anymore. But
the designers and engineers of this technology are still working in
the commercial environment.
company’s subcontractors, Turkish companies, upgraded their
standing and became leading engineering companies serving worldwide
in the construction of new thermal power plants. There are also other
reputable local companies with similar references.
experienced engineering contractor companies can recreate the
original designs very easily in time if the opportunity would be
given to the private entrepreneurship. Those companies can also
employ the original designers in their local design offices as
expatriate consultants if need be. In this way, we could ask our
engineering companies for their quotes for 150-350 MWE thermal power
plants. I believe that they have such a capability to deliver in
local engineering companies have a sufficient number of references,
ample work experience, and strong competencies. Therefore we should
employ domestic engineering, fabrication, construction, contracting,
as well as domestic labor. We all know that there are hundreds of
thousands of engineers working in international contracting
companies. We can bring together the same number of local engineers.
Foreign companies employ people like us, there is no difference.
an overseas construction job is completed, the international
contractor normally fulfills the contractual requirements, operates
the plant during the commissioning phase and temporary acceptance
period, receives the final acceptance, and then leaves the plant.
After that the operator is left alone to run the plant and to deal
with all the problems that arise in time.
the contractor is in the home country, then they are responsible for
operating the thermal power plant during its entire operation, maybe
for 20-30 years. Contractors have to solve every problem and satisfy
the client at all times in cases when accidents or troubles arise. If
they do not, then the client not only stops working with that
company, but expresses to all others in the market their displeasure.
This results in a veritable death sentence for the contracting
work with your client keeps you alive, fit, and helps you to improve
your design and technology; and perhaps most importantly it makes you
more competitive in the global market.
Direskeneli, is a graduate of METU Mechanical Engineering department
(1973). He worked in public, private enterprises, USA Turkish JV
companies (B&W, CSWI, AEP), in fabrication, basic and detail
design, marketing, sales and project management of thermal power
plants. He is currently working as freelance consultant/ energy
analyst with thermal power plants basic/ detail design software
expertise for private engineering companies, investors, universities
and research institutions. He is a member of ODTÜ Alumni and Chamber
of Turkish Mechanical Engineers Energy Working Group.
17 April 2016