Tuesday, October 17, 2006

A Rehab Story- Yenikoy

Today, I would like to share my past experience in Yenikoy thermal power plant . I will try to avoid technical jargon, or at least try to minimise it while telling the story.

On 19th December 1994, upon invitation of the power plant management, together with Mr. Barney Baker from Babcock & Wilcox Ohio, USA, we visited the site.

There are three power plants close to each other, at the same SouthWest corner of Turkey, where Yatagan is designed to generate 3x210 Mwe, Yenikoy should generate 2x210 Mwe and the last thermal power plant Kemerkoy at the seaside is designed to generate 3x210 Mwe.

We stayed in the plant guest house for 2 days. We had our protective heavy work cloths, barets, protective gloves and hard shoes to inspect the boiler inside. We inspected the complete boilers, one after another almost every inch, from bottom wall to all four side walls, as well as roof wall.

Let me try to explain what we have found in the end,

The original contractor, so-called reputable East European company designed the boiler and put almost no compensation mechanism to their boiler water tubes walls. In simple words, the water tube walls were heated when fuel (lignite coal) was fired, the boiler tube walls get hot, want to expand but they can not expand since there is no adequate expansion mechanism, therefore they are bended, become round or even broken under heavy heat load. So simple.

It was so on all boiler walls, however that was compensated geometrically at side walls, but on the roof, it was so apparent that the complete roof surface was like rough sea wave, all sinusoidal surface.

In all thermal power plant steam boiler designs, you put certain compensation detail to all directions in order to compensate the expansion.

That missing detail was also repeated in all other nearby power plants, which were constructed by the same East European company

The power plant engineers were aware of that important issue, but they had nothing to make any correction, nor any initiative to make any remedy

The other major problem was due to incoming poor quality local lignite mine. Plant was designed to fire lignite with around 2000 kcal/kg lower heating value. Incoming Lignite has average 1000. Incoming lignite was to be cleaned, should be free from unburnable stones, soil, etc, should be enriched with water floating process etc.

It was fed as received, by machines in the open coal mine, no cleaning.

So all unburnable material (stone, soil etc) were grinded with no purpose, fed into the steam boilers with no heat output. Plant was feeding unnecessary amount of supplementary fuel oil in order to fire the poor quality lignite in the boiler.

Third missing issue was inadequate number of soot blowers. You should clean the boiler walls in every 8-hour shift with steam. They had high content of calcium in the incoming lignite. That calcium compositions were stuck to boiler wall, and they had almost minimum wall cleaning due to inadequate number of steam blowing soot blowers. Result was power output drop from 210 MWE to 150 Mwe in a few months. They stop the power plant and clean the inside surfaces with pressured water for 1-month each time before start-up again.

So power plant needed for major rehabilitation, expansion details were to be added to all walls, especially to the roof water tube walls, more soot blowers were to be assembled, and incoming poor quality lignite has to be washed, improved, cleaned before feeding into boilers.

We prepared our site report upon return to our offices, with photographs and sketches, and delivered to the power plant administration. All our work was free-of-charge,

Since then power plants were operated as explained above.

One day, one after another, all steam boilers stopped. No more.

They had inefficient dust filters, unreasonable amount of boiler tube failures, no flue gas desulphurization etc.

Local environmentalists reacted, and the public enterprise in charge of power plant operation decided to cease the power plant operation in these 3 power plants.

For a while, administration wanted to sell the plants to private companies. Nobody wanted to purchase. They had to have rehabilitation. Then world bank announced a rehabilitation fund to rehabilitate the plants, with some addition by the public administration. Now that is in international tendering.

In market economy, in complete private ownership, you do not work with a client whose performance is not good, who delivered a poor product, a poor system. There is a saying that “you cannot cheat a client twice, three impossible.”

In Erdemir Iron & Steel mills plant, once a reputable Italian company has received a big thermal power plant order. They are to fire heavy fuel oil to generate 180 tons of high pressure steam at maximum continuous capacity, but in any case they could not reach above 140 tons per hour.

So Erdemir administration blacklisted the company, but also blacklisted all Italian companies.

When we received the 5th power plant steam boiler order, we were requested to replace all Italian supplies, steam boiler tubes, valves, fittings, fans, pumps etc. all.

A foreign company receives a big important order to construct a high capacity power plant, they cannot satisfy the expected performance values, you do not disqualify them in the second power plant, then you invite for the third power plant. All three power plants are failure. Then you invite them for rehabilitation. You should disqualify at the upfront.

Now we have a rehab tender with a budget figure between 80- 100 m US Dollars.

After evaluation of the proposals, you invite the original supplier for rehabilitation since their price is the lowest.

Rule. You should not invite the original company to the rehabilitation tender.

Rule. You should not award the lowest price

Rule. A foreign company cannot make the rehabilitation

They make some activity, receive their money or go to arbitration and leave the country never come back

Rehabilitation has to be made by the local companies

They made the correct design, appropriate design to fire the available indigenous l ignite, they cannot escape to anywhere

You should not wait that long for rehabilitation of the power plants

Local public R&D funds are to be spent for this purpose to develop local engineering

Young engineers are paid properly, they work hard as elsewhere even much better for a local accomplishment

Foreign companies can escape in case of performance failure, local companies cannot escape, they are destined to succeed

You gain local experience and expertise to use your local coal mines, as well as your own engineering capabilities

Never leave your kitchen to strangers, get control over your own house kitchen

Get control over your power plants to operate properly, make design changes by yourself,

The World Bank funds are not free-of- charge, we shall pay back together

Rehabilitation works are not so difficult, this is not space technology. We are talking about some bundles of boiler tubes. A country with F-16 fabrication plant, can do much easier work in thermal power plants. Our young engineers can do much better, they are no different than other counterparts, I believe that even much better

In Yenikoy thermal power plant,

You will add expansion joint details to all steam boiler tube walls to avoid tube failure

You will add ample number of soot blower to clean the inside boiler surfaces and operate them

You will clean the incoming poor quality lignite prior to boiler feed,

You will trust to your own young engineers, you give them enough hardware and software tools for proper design,

We engineers all use the similar or same softwares and hardwares

You will support local academicians and your local young engineers with public R&D funds

You should support your local companies to handle all design work,

You should not stay under mercy of foreign companies,

If you do, not at the mercy of East European designers or contractors only,

but today Chinese and Indians, or Koreans will do your own homework on your behalf,

Today it is in Yenikoy, tomorrow it is in Afsin Elbistan-A rehabilitation.

We need to learn from our past experience.

Your evaluations and contributions will be highly appreciated


Blogger yuvakuran said...

Degerli Arkadaslarim

Gecmiste yaptigim biir saha gezi notumu sizlerle paylasayim istedim

19 Kasim 1994 te BWG'de calisirken Yenikoy Termik Santralinden gelen
bir davet uzerine Babcock & Wilcox, OH ABD den gelen tecrubeli saha
supervizoru Mr. Barney Baker ile beraber santrali ziyarete gittik.
Once Yatagan santraline kisa bir nezaket ziyareti yaptik. Sonra 2-
gece- 3 gun YeniKoy de kaldik. Misafirhane de misafir edildik.
Santral o sirada rutin bakimda idi. Tulumlari giydik, buhar
kazanlarin icine girdik, tum kazan boru duvarlarini, yan- alt- ust-
tavan hepsini tum gun kontrol ettik.

Bakin neler bulduk??

Santrali yapan Polonya li buhar kazani imalatcisi firma buhar kazani
boru duvarlarina hic isi genlesme payi- mekanizmasi, detayi vermemis-

Yani boru-duvarlari kiskac altinda idi, isi yuku duvarlara binince
borular genlesiyor, genlesme bir mekanizma ile kompanse edilemiyor be
borular egriliyor- bukuluyor- catliyor patliyor -du

Durum tum yan duvarlarda be ozellikle tavan boru duvarinda cok net

Tavan boru duvari dalgali deniz gibi sinusoidal bir durumda idi.

Halbuki tum buhar kazanlarinda genlesmenin kompanse edilmesi icin bir
tarafta genlesme detayi birakilir

Bu eksik detay tum benzer diger santrallerde ayni idi, Yatagan-
Yenikoy- Kemerkoy

Idaredeki isletmeci muhendisler olayi biliyorlardi ancak ellerinden
birsey gelmiyordu

Bir baska durum ise yakilan yerel linyit komurunden olusuyordu

Santrale getirilen yerel linyit tas- toprak ve diger yanmayan
maddelerden ayrilmiyordu

Komur madeni isletmesi, cikardigi dusuk isil degerdeki acik linyiti
aynen- oldugu gibi (tuvenan), islenmeden santrale gonderiyor,
santralde de aynen kazana veriyordu

Yani tas- toprak- yanmayan maddeler komur degirmenlerinde gereksiz
yere pulverize ediliyor, bu toz / pulverize komur kazan icine
gonderiliyor ve yanmasi icin gereksiz miktarda ilave yakit

Kazan yan duvarlarinda cok az kurumufleyici (sootblowers) vardi, ve
cogu calismiyordu. Halbuki her vardiyada bir dere buhar puskurtulerek
calistirilmasi gerekiyordu. Kurumufleyiciler az sayida olduklari ve
cogu zaman calistirilmadigi icin linyit icinde bulunan buyuk
orandaki kalsiyum bilesikleri buhar kazani duvarlarina yapisarak
kalinlasiyor, isi gecirimini azaltiyor, randimani dusuruyor, normalde
210 MWe olan santral cikisini cok kisa surede 150- 160 MWe a

Sonra santral durduruluyor, tasaron firma(lar) yaklasik 1-ay sureyle
basincli su ile buhar kazani ic yuzeylerini kalsiyum katmanlarindan
aritiyorlar ve sonra sistem bir sonraki 4-5 ay ay icin tekrar devreye

Yani buhar kazani genlesme detaylari yenilenmeli ve cok miktarda yeni
kurum ufleyiciler monte edilmeliydi

Ayrica linyit isletmesi ile sozlesme yenilenmeli, santrale gonderilen
komur buhar kazanlarina, komur degirmenlerine girmeden
zenginlestirilmeli, lavvar dan (water floating process) gecirilmeli,
tas/ toprak/ diger yanmaz maddelerden arindirilmali,isil degeri (HHV
veya LHV) yukseltilmeli idi

Geziden donduk / raporumuzu verdik

Bu is icin para almadik

Yillar boyu santral bu sekilde calistirilmaya calisildi

Sonra santral pes etti

Baca gazi aritma sistemleri yapilamadi, hala yapiliyor

toz tutma filtreleri randiman vermedi

Aslinda cozum belli idi

herkes biliyordu

isletmeciler olayi cok net biliyorlardi

Ozel sektorde bir isi verdiginiz firma size istediginiz performansi
vermezse siz o firma ile bir daha calismazsiniz

Erdemir de 3-4 numarali buhar zamnlarini yapan buyuk ve onemli bir
firma 180 ton/saat buhar kapasitesine devamli-azami yukte (MCR)
cikamadigi , 140 ton/saat MCR de kaldigi icin bir daha is verilmedi

sadece o firma degil uzun bir sure Erdemir hicbir Italyan firmasina
is vermedi

Biz 5 numarali kazan ihalesini aldigimizda kapsamdaki tum Italyan
mali pompa, boru, her turlu aksam cikarildi, ve diger ureticilerden
almamiz istendi

Yani bir yabanci firma Yatagan termik santralini yapiyor, basarisiz
bir projelendirme, basarisiz bir tasarim yapiyor

ayni basarisizligi Yenikoy de tekrarliyor

Kemerkoy de tekrarliyor

Sonra siz rehabilitasyon ihalesine cikiyorsunuz

Bu basarisiz firmayi ta basta eleyeceginize,

yeterlik vermiyeceginize

kendi yetersizliginizi onaylar gibi tekrar ihaleye cagiriyorsunuz

"en dusuk fiyat verdi" diyerek muzakereye davet ediyorsunuz

Kural. Rehabilitasyon ihalesine original yapimci firma cagirilmaz
Cunku tasarimi yanlistir, kendisi tamir edemez,

Kural. En dusuk firmaya is verilmez. Isi yapabilecek firmaya is

Yabancilar rehabilitasyon yapamaz

Rehabilitasyonu yerli firmalar yapar

Dogru Tasarimi yerli firma yapar

Bu is icin bu kadar zaman beklenmez

TUBITAK Ar&Ge fonlari bu ise yarar

Genc muhendislerin calismalari boyle projeler ile odullendirilir

Yabanci firma uyduruk bir yenileme yapar kacar gider, siz o santral
ile tekrar basbasa kalirsiniz

yerli firma kacamaz, tasarimina sahip cikmak zorundadir

Evinizin mutfagini kimseye birakmayin

kendi santralinize sahip cikin

aldiginiz kredi - size bila bedel hibe olarak verilmis degildir

Krediyi yine siz geri odeyeceksiniz

Rehabilitasyon isleri gozle buyutulecek cok onemli birsey degildir

Yenikoy de

1. Genlesme detaylari ekleyeceksiniz

2. Yan boru duvarlarina Cok sayida kurum ufleyici monte edeceksiniz
ve bu kurum ufleyicileri mutlaka her vardiya da (8 saatte bir)

3. Gelen komuru kazana girmeden tas- toprak- yanmaz maddelerden

4. Kendi insaniniza - ozellikle genc muhendisinize guveneceksiniz ona
gerekli parasal destegi, ar&Ge Tubitak fonu, yazilim destegi

5. Yabancilarin insafina kalmayacaksiniz, onlarin sacma sapan
tasarimlarina bel baglamayacaksiniz

Selamlar saygilar

Haluk Direskeneli

7:12 AM  
Blogger yuvakuran said...


Iyi yazarsin, iyi yazarsin da....

Ingilizcede bir laf vair... "follow the smell of money" deriz.

Her konuda oldugu gibi "you need to follow the smell of money".

Bu ihaleler yabanci sirketlere, babalarimizin hayri icin verilmedi.
Yabancilarin mutlaka ve mutlaka yerli bir ayagi vardi; ve yerli ayak
masa altindan paralari karar mercilerine akitti.... Hangi ihaleyi
alirsaniz alin; durum bundan ibarettir. Senin eski firma Gama dahil...
Hatta Gama, Turkiyede ogrendiklerini uygulayip; masa altindan yurt
disinda da is kotarmistir.

Yabanci bankalarin ipinde degil, senin isin olmus olmamis. Devlet
garantisi var ise ve riskle orantili bir sekilde faiz aliniyorsa;
bankanin derdi mi senin projen olmus olmamis.

Ben sahsen, Pemex'in (Meksika Milli Petrol sirketi) 4 milyar dolari
(inan dort milyar dolar) iki sene icinde cep ettigine sahit oldum. Ama
Pemex elemanlari esleri ve cocuklari ile birlikte Fransada dunya
kupasina gittiler. Ayrica da ceplerine 10 bin dolar harcirah verildi.
Biz adamlara is yapiyorduk, biz kupaya gidiyoz diye bir ay yok oldu

Gene bizim armatorler, 1996 yilinda Japonyanin actigi 300 milyon
dolarlik krediyi ic ettiler, o donem Emlak banka dahil edilmis olan
Denizcilik bankasi vasitasi ile. Simdi bu iste, hem politikaci hem de
banka yonetimi acaip rusvet yedi.

Eeee, bunu nasil onleyecegiz? Mesele orada.

Biz muhendisler cok saf insanlariz. Dunyada hep boyle. Bankacilar ve
politikacilar bizden kat kat be daha kurnaz. Muhendislere biraksak
senin dedigin gibi olur isler.

Ben onu bunu bilmem. Turkiye'nin problemi Turkiye icinde ve
buluslari ile cozulur.

Ama maalesef; devlet memuru statusune indirgenmis universite (bagimsiz
R&D yapan tek bir fakulte veya prof goremiyorum); kendi cebinden baska
birsey dusunmeyen devlet burokrati ve politik nufuz oesindeki
politikacilarin olusturdugu toplundan daha fazlasini beklememiz hayal

Bizde birsey yurt disindan geldiyse makbuldur; yurt icinde yapildiysa
makbul degildir. Gunluk davranislarimizla da bunu percinlestiririz.

(Evvelsi sene Antalyada bir otele geldik. Agustos ayinda A/C
Idereye sikayet ettik. Adamlar full doluyuz artik idare edin dediler.
Ben de aninda cikip gittim. Ama kredi kartinizdan aldik iade etmeyiz
dediler. Ben USA'yi arayip iptal ettirdim harcamayi. Megerse
olsaymis oyle bir sansim da yokmus. Donduk gidip Sheraton'da yer
bulduk. Adam bizi bir de upgrade etti. ISte sana gunuk davranis.
Yakaladim mi koyarim anlayisi.)

Bu akintiya tek kurek ceken de ordu. Ne kadar sikayet edilse, ne kadar
rahatsilik var dense de, ordu ulke icinde teknoloji ve birikim yaratmak
icin herkese firsat yaratiyor.... yaratmaya cabaliyor.

Neyse hocam, basini agritmayalim... hem de disaridan fazla gazel

Iyi gunler..


11:42 AM  

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