year (2013), we consumed total 245 billion kw-hours of electricity in
Turkey. Turkish electricity generation annual growth was around 6%
compared to the previous year. Foreign dependence on imported fossil
fuel was around 71-72%. Our total expenditure on fossil fuel imported
in the current account deficient was around 60 billion U.S. Dollars
the end of 2013, our installed capacity has reached to 64.044 MW.
Peak (maximum) demand was 39,000 MW in last August. This peak
(maximum) demand was our prime concern in order to satisfy the local
market without interruption. Increasing the installed capacity is not
enough. Because we have different availability hours, different
capacity factors on each power generation plants depending on sources
of water, wind, solar and fuel supply.
2013 a total of 157 new private sector power plants put into
operation, a total of 4,329 MW of additional capacity increase was
achieved. Total installed power output of 66% share is generated by
the private sector. Our rate of 50% dependence on natural gas from
the former fell to 44% last year.
energy sources covers channel or river type hydro power plants, wind
farms, solar plants and biomass power plants. Hydro power plants with
man-made lakes larger than 15 km2 reservoir are not in renewable
year (2014) we are in a severe drought. Snow-rain precipitation is
not received yet. We consume clean reservoir waters very wasteful.
Agricultural lands have unnecessary irrigation applications. Wetlands are decreased.
operate fossil fuel firing thermal power plants covering almost 85%
of our total electricity generation capacity, ever increasing CO2
stack gas emissions. Due to our rapid growing energy needs for our
industry as well as household consumption, we have difficulties to
put restrictions to reduce fossil fuel operations. We have to consume
our local lignite at reasonable rate to reduce our imported fossil
On the other hand, our total CO2 emissions as well
as dust dissipations are increased due to fossil fuel firing in
existing thermal power plants. That is also due to old technologies
employed without CO2 reductions and low capacities of dust collecting
precipitators. Due to our rapid and continuous need for more energy
needs, we have difficulties to put restrictions on thermal power
plant operations. We can not stop operating, we can not stop
investments of thermal power plants but we can only try to reduce the
rate of increase in fossil fuel dependence.
in all, we must give more importance to our renewable energy
resources. We have running spring water in our rivers for hydro power
plants, we have sunshine much powerful than European rivals so that
we can generate more electricity in our solar panels, we have strong
winds on 3 sides of our seashores to generate electricity from wind
farms all free of charges, for the price of first installment and
negligible operating and maintenance expenses.
each 1-Mwe electricity generation from fossil fuel firing thermal
power plant, we have CO2 stack emissions which could be turned into
O2 by almost 120 thousand trees.
year we have ongoing drought, less and less rain, so the water in our
reservoirs can generate 30% of installed capacity in our hydro power
plants. Water storage artificial lakes, reservoirs are not response
to immediate water requirements. Storage is not a cheap solution.
They are costly to built, and not so efficient in electricity
generation. Our interconnection power-line network is not powerful
for the electricity generation. Powerful better new interconnecting
power lines are needed. Peak electricity generation is diverse in
different power plants. Renewable energies are scattered, cost is
author is totally opposed to investment incentives since they are always
abused in practice. Enhancing the incentives are unnecessary cost to
the electricity price and to the end-user. Incentives
are requested and the most of the time it is secured although misused
at all times. Bureaucratic procedures for investment incentives are
tiresome, complicated, long, insufficient. They require lots of
paperwork which are not necessary. When you submit the necessary
paperwork, you get incentive in time, there is no screening, turn
down ratio is so low.
implementation of renewables energy investments, our public
administrators prepared to have some delay in realization. They
expected the prevailing first installment cost to lower levels in the
market. Prices were high due to R&D costs. The prices would go
to R&D expenses of foreign suppliers. Now we feel that prevailing
market prices are down to reasonable levels at international markets.
Local fabrications are also possible. We still need more investments
on interconnecting high voltage transmission lines, to make them
available for scattered power plants in remote regions.
renewable power plant first installment prices are dropped. Unit
prices of renewable energy from wind and solar are coming close to
electricity prices generated from conventional fossil fuel firing
thermal power plants. Domestic manufacturing facilities for wind and
solar are getting increased in number.
turbine towers, propellers are manufactured locally. Domestic
manufacturing of PV panels for solar energy can be produced in 17
there was no funding, almost no incentives for renewable energy
investments, since public administrators feel that the prices were
too high, it was not good timing to initiate renewable energy
investments. Now, we foresee that we are ready to manufacture
hydraulic equipment to cover all our hydraulic potential in 5-10
years with high share of domestic production.
share which is paid on electricity prices are too high. That is also
extra cost to the end user. That figure is fixed via competitive
tendering, but that high prices make the projects not so feasible in
the long term. Rate of return of the investments, repayments are
have a general feeling that "Private sector always makes the best
calculations in investments. They have right thinking at all times
for making new investment." That is not always true. Private
sector investors also makes mistakes in their calculations. They take
random spending decisions in herd instinct, in line with others, as
in latest fashion trends. Projects may not pay themselves within
reasonable time periods. Tough competition can make final projects at
unreasonable costs, not feasible, all due to miscalculations.
wind energy investments, public authorities require 2-years of field
measurements. That is reasonable. The same is required for the solar
energy investments, which is totally unreasonable, since for solar
energy you can calculate the expected energy generation with
latitude- longitude coordinates of the location. That 2-year long
field measurements for solar energy is unnecessary. That is
unnecessary burden on solar energy investments. We presume that
public administrations require the serious investor to pay a certain
serious lump-sum money upfront. Serious companies pay that cost, and
others are eliminated. Required documentations, lots of paper work
are also unnecessary. Who will read them?
have also another application of cheap local fabrication,
license-free, inefficient hot water collector solar panels. With some
more investments, we can fabricate better quality PV panels to
generate electricity. Hot water generators are also good for local
hot water household demand, to reduce fossil fuel expenditures.
renewable investments were expensive, their electricity generation
unit price were high. Most of them were installed in remote regions,
on mountains, far from main high voltage transmission lines. These
are updated. Prices are reduced to affordable levels, local
fabrication facilities are formed. Instead of direct incentives for
first installment, public authority put a reasonable investment on
electricity generation. There is now guaranteed purchase price 5.50
US cents per kWh renewable electricity which could be escalated to 22
US cents per kWh if local contents is high.
energy investments have hurdles to overcome in selection of site,
predetermined energy resource whether it is wind or solar, legal
rules and regulations, guaranteed sales prices which should always be
taken into consideration prior to investment decision. In business
environment, we focus ourselves to solve problems, not to create new
need to reduce our current account deficit. We need to reduce the
intake of imported fossil fuels. We should make more long-term
investments in renewable energy and we need to increase domestic
are always welcome. Oberstdorf, Germany, 20 January 2014
Direskeneli, is a graduate of METU Mechanical Engineering department
(1973). He worked in public, private enterprises, USA Turkish JV
companies (B&W, CSWI, AEP), in fabrication, basic and detail
design, marketing, sales and project management of thermal power
plants. He is currently working as freelance consultant/ energy
analyst with thermal power plants basic/ detail design software
expertise for private engineering companies, investors, universities
and research institutions. He is a member of ODTÜ Alumni and Chamber
of Turkish Mechanical Engineers Energy Working Group.